Anales de la Facultad de Medicina
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Copyright© 1999

ISSN 1025 - 5583
Vol. 58, Nº3 - 1997



1)Jönsson I., Eriksson B. and krook A. Minimal criterial for identification of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis APMIS, 1990, 98, 954-956.

2)Berk S. L. From Micrococcus to Moraxella. The reemergence of Branhamella catarrhalis. Arc. Interm. Mcd., 1990. 150, 2254-2257

3) Matsumoto K., Rikitomi N., Nagatake T. and Kamruddin A, Gram-negative coccus infection. Nippon-Rinsho, 1994. 52:2, 367-371

4) Saez Nieto J. A. Branhamella catarrhalis: no patógeno con creciente interés, Enf. Infec. y Microbiol. Clin., 1987, 5:7, 15-16.

5) Boyle F. M., Geokhiou P. R. And McCormack J. G. Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis: pathogenic significance in respiratory infections. Med. Jour. Australia, 1991, 154, 592-596.

6) Vaneechontte M., Verschraegen G., Claeys G., Weise B. and Van Den Abeele A. M. Respiratory tract carrier rates of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children and interpretation of the isolation of M. catarrhalis from sputum. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1990, 28: 12. 2674-2680

7) Johnson M. A., Drew W.L. and Roberts M. Branhamella (Neisseria)
catarrhalis a lower respiratory tract pathogen? J. Clin. Microbiol., 1981, 13: 6, 1066-1069.

8) Jonsson I, Holme T., Krook A. Significance of isolation of Moraxella
catarrhalis in routine cultures from respiratory tract in adults: antibody response studied in whole cell EIA. Scand. J. Infect, Dis., 1994, 26: 5, 553-558.

9) Sehgal S.C. and A1-Shaimy I Moraxella catarrhalis in upper respiratory tract of healthy yemeni children/adults and paediatric patients: detection and significance. Infecction, 1994, 22: 1193-196.

10) Fenton A. C., Foweraker JE, Pearson GA. and Firmin R. K. Bronchopulmonary infection with Moraxella catarrhalis in infants requiring extracorporal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr. Pulmonal. 1994, 17: 6; 393-395.

11) Takasugi M. Clinical, study on gente bronchitis using inflamatiry of sputum. Kansenshogaku-Zasshi, 1994, 68: 1, 127-137.

12) Chinn N. K., Kumarasinghe G. and Lim. T. K. Moraxella catarrhalis respiratory infections in adults. Singapore Med. J., 1993, 34: 5. 409-411.

13) Sánchez A., Iñigo N. A., Rojas E. y Gonzáles M. Neumonía bacteriémica por Moraxella catarrhalis en un paciente no inmunodeprimido. Enf, Infec. y Microbiol, Clin. 1992, 10: 6,74-75.

14) Dadone C., Vigano F., Bonndi G., Rosa M., Mariani P., Giltri C., & Redaelli B. Branhamella catarrhalis peritonitis in CAPD. Nephron, 1989; 51, 557.

15) Gray L. D., Van Scoy R. E., Anhalt J.P. and Yu P. K. W. Wound infection caused by Branhamella catarrhalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1989, 27: 5, 818-820.

16) Guthrie R., Bakenhaster K., Nelson R., and Woskobnick R. Branhamella catarrhalis sepsis: a case report and review of the literature . J. Infec. Dis., 1988. 158: 4, 907-908.

17) Wallace M. R., and Oldfield E. C. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis bacteriemia. Arch. Intern. Med., 1990, 150, 1332-1334.

18) Meyer G. A., Shope T. R., Waecker N. J. and Lanningham F. H. Moraxella (Branhamella) bacteremia in children. A report of trus patients and rewiew of the literature. Clin. Pediatr. Phila., 1995, 34:3 146-150.

19)Ejlertsen T. and Shonheyder, H. Branhamella catarrhalis as a cause of multiple subpeural abscesses. Scand. J. Infect Ds., 1991, 23, 117-118.

20)Gottfarb P., and Braumer A. Children with treatment and role ofMoraxella catarrhalis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 1994, 170: 6, 1613-1616.

21) Bodkin S. and Warde D. Moraxella catarrhalis and unusual pathogen in bacterial tracheiti. Jr. Med. J., 1993, 86: 6, 208-209.

22) Vaneechoutte Vererschaetegen G., Claeys G. and Van Den Abeele, A.M. Selecctive Medium for Branhamella catarrhalis with acetazolamide as a specific inhibitor of Neisseria spp. J Clin. Microbiol. 1988, 26: 12, 544-2548.

23) Hager H., Verghese A., Alvarez., S. L. And Berk, S. L., Branhamella catarrhalis respiratory infections. Rev. Infec. Disceas 1987, 9: 6, 1140-1149.

24) Ejlertsen T., Thisted E., Ebbesen F., Olesen B. and Renneberg, J Branhamella catarrhalis in children and adults. A study of prevalence, time of colonization, and association with upper and lower respiratory tract infections. J Infect., 1994, 29: 1, 23-31.

25) Digiovanni C., Riley T. V., Hoyne G. F., Yeo R. and Cooksey, P. Respiratory tract infections due to Branhamella catarrhalis: Epidemiological data from Western Australia. Epidem, inf., 1987, 99, 445-453.

26) Sutich E. G. Incidencia de gérmenes de la familia Neissericeae en la flora farìngea de adultos sanos. Enf. Infec. y Microbiol. Clin., 1992, 10:5, 314-315.

27) Luise M., Ongsansoy E. G. and Forward K. R. Rapid identification of Branhamella Catarrhalis, a comparison of five rapid methods. Diag. microbiol. infec. Dis., 1990, 13, 205-208.

28) Speeleveld E., Fossepre J.M., Gords B. and Van-Landnyt, H. W. Comparison of three special methods. Tributyrine, 4-metbylum-belliferyl butyrate and indoxyl acetate, for rapid identification of Moraxella catarrhalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1994. 32: 5, 1362-1363.

29) Soto-Hernández S. L., Holtsclaw-Berk S., Harvill L. M. aud Berk, S. L. Phenotypic characteristics of Branhamella catarrhalis strains. Jour. Clin Microbiol, 1989. 27: 5, 903-908.

30) Ahmed K, Rikitomi N., Ichinose A. and Matsumoto, K. Possible Presence of a capsule in Branhamella catarrhalis Microbiol., Inmunol- 1991, 35: 5, 361-366.

31) Sethi S., Hill S. L. and Murphy, T. F. Serum antibodies to outer membrane proteins (OMPS) of Moraxella (Branhamella), catarrhalis in patients With bronchiectasis: identification of OMP B1 as an important antigen Infect. Immun., 1995, 63: 4. 1516-1520.

32) Jonsson I., Holme T. and Krook, A. Significance of isolation Moraxella catarrhalis routine cultives from the respiratory tract in adults: antibody, response studied in Whole cell EIA, Stand. J. Infect. Dis., 1994. 26:5. 553-0558.

33) Ikram R.B., Nixon M., Aitxen J. and Wells E. A prospective study of isolation of Moraxella catarrhalis in hospital during the winter month. J. Hosp. Infect., 1993, 25: 1, 7-14.

34) Ejlertsen T., Shonheyder H. and Thisted E. Beta lactamase production in Branhamella catarrhalis isolates from lower respiratory tract secretions in Danish children: an increasing problem. Infection, 1991, 19: 5, 328-330,

35) Christensen J.J., Keiding J. and Bruun B. Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase characterization of Branhamella catarrhslis isolates from 1988. APMIS, 1990, 98, 1039-1044.

36) Gómez J., Ruiz J., Hernández J. L., Nuñez M. L, Contreras, M. and Vaidés, M. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Stretoccus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, a prospective study in Murcia, Spain, 1983-1992. Chemotherapy. 1994, 40: 5, 299-303.

37) Verbist L. And Dhoore, F. In vitro suseptibility of reccently isolated respiratory tract pathogens to minocycline and comparable antibiotic. A multicentre study. Acta Clin. Belg. 1994, 49: 6, 268-273.

38) Kibsey P. C., Rennie R. P. and Rushton, J. E. Disk difusion versus both microdilution suseptibilty testing of Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis using seven oral antimicrobial agents: application of updated .susceptibility guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. J. Clin. Microbial., 1994, 32:11, 2786-2790.

39) Yamada T., Yokota Y., Ikeda F., Mine Y., Kitada T. Antibacterial activity of cefixime against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae in the presence of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Chemotherapy, 1992, 38, 28-35,

40) Hot C., Van-Dijke E. E., Verduin C. M., Verhoee S. and Van-Dijk M. Experimental evidence for Moraxella-induced penicillin neutralization in puhemococcal pneumonia, J. Infect. Dis., 1994, 170: 6, 1613-1616.

41) Nash D. R., Flanagan C., Steele L.C. and Wallace R. J. Comparison of the activity of cefixime and activities of other oral antibodies against adult clinical isolates of Moraxella (Brahamella) catarrhalis containing BRO-1 and BRO-2 and Haemophilus influenzae, Antimic. Agents & Chemotherapy, 1991, 35: 1.

42) Fung C. P., Yeo S. F. and Livermore, D. M. Suceptibility of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to beta-lactamasa antibiotics in relation to beta-lactamasa pattern. J. Antimicrob. Chemother, 1994, 332, 215-222

43) Forsgren A. and Walder M. Amtimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in South Sweden including a 13- years follow- up study of some respiratory tract pathogen. Apmis., 1994, 102-3, 227-235.

44) Texier-Maugein J, Escoubas J., Fouche J., Mormede M. Branhamella catarrhalis: Incidence dans les infections et determination de leur sensibilite a'cing antibiotiques. Path. Biol., 1988. 36: 5, 540-543.

45) Faden H, Doern G, Wolf J. and Blocker M. Antimicrobial susceptibility of nasopharyngeal isolates of potencial pathogens recovered from infants before antibiotic therapy: implications for the management of otitis media. Pediatr. Infect. Dis, J, 1994, 13: 7, 609-612.