Revista Peruana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.     2002; 5 (1-2) : 5-21





1 . Abul-Ezz SR, Walker PD, Shah SV Role of glutathione in an animal model of myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 199 1; 88:983 3-9837. 

2. Adibi SA, Johns BA. Partial substitution of amino acids of a parenteral solution with tripeptides: effects on parameters of protein nutrition in baboons. Metabolism 1984; 33:420-424. 

3. Aebi S, Lauterburg BH. Divergent effects of intravenous GSH and cystein on renal and hepatic GSH. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: R348-352. 

4. Ad-Bander H, Etheredge SB, Paukert T Humphreys MH, Morris RCJr. Phosphate loading attenuates renal tubular dysfunction induced by maleic acid in the dog. Am. J.Physiol. 1985; 248: FS 13-52 1. 

5. Altomonte L, Zoli A, Ghirlanda G, Manna R, Greco AV. Effect of fenflurarnine on insulin/growth hormone ratio in obese subjects. Pharmacology 1988; 36:106-111. 

6. Amiel SA, Caprio S, Sherwin RS, Plewe G, Haymond MW, Tamborlane WV Insulin resistance of puberty: a defect restricted to peripheral glucose metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 199 1; 72: 277-282. 

7. Ammon HP Grimm A, Lutz S, Wagner-Teschner D, Handel M, Hagenloh 1. Islet glutathione and insulin release. Diabetes 1980; 29:830-834. 

8. Anderson JW, Hamilton CC, Brinkman-Kaplan V Benefits and risksofan intensive very-low-calorie diet prognam for severe obesity. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87:6-15. 

9. Anderson ME, Meister A. Dynamic state of glutathione in blood plasma. J Biol Chem 1980; 255:9530-9533. 

10. Arnal M, Obled C, Attaix D, Patureau Mirand P, Bonin D. Dietary control of protein turnover. Diabetes Metab 1987; 13:630-642. 

11. Arnold J, Leinhardt D, Carlson G, Gray P, Little RA, Irving MH. Thermogenic and hormonal responses to amino acid infusion in septic humans. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: E129-135. 

12. Astrup A, Lundsgaard C. What do pharmacological approaches to obesity management offer? Linking pharmacological mechanisms of obesity management agents to clinical practice. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1998; 106 Suppi 2:29-34. 

13. Aw TY, Wierzbicka G, Jones DP Oral glutathione increases tissue glutathione in vivo. Chem Biol Interact 199 1; 80:89-97. 

14. Behrendt W Surmann M. Post-traumatic hypocaloric parenteral nutrition development and clinical application. Infusionstherapie 199 1; 18: 271-278. 

15. Bernardi F, Petraglia F, Seppala M, Spinetti A, Bertolini S, Ferdeghini M, Genazzani AR. Somatotropic axis and body weight in premenopausal and post menopausal women: evidence for a neuroenclocrine derangement, in absence of changes of insulin like growth factor binding protein concentrations. Hum Reprod 1998; 13:279-284. 

16. Bernardis LL, Bellinger LL. The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroenclocrinology and metabolism. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1993; 17: 141-193.

17. Bluet- Pajot MT, Epelbaumj, Gourdji D, Hammond C, Kordon C. Hypothalamic and hypophyseal regulation of growth hormone. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1998; 18: 101-123. 

18. Boden G, Tappy L. Effects of amino acids on glucose disposal. Diabetes 1990; 39: 1079-1984. 

19. Boger RH, Bode-Boger SM, Kienke S, Stan AC, Nafe R, Frolich JC. Dietary L-arginine decreases myointimal cell proliferation and vascular monocyte accumulation in cholesterol fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1998; 136:67-77. 

20. Bray GA. Obesity and reproduction. Hum Reprod 1997, 12 Suppl 1:26-32. 

21. Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary fat intake does affect obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 68: 1157-1173. 

22. Bray GA, York DA. The MONA LISA hypothesis in the time of leptin. Recent Prog Horm Res 1998; 53:95 

23. Burge JC, Goon A, Choban PS, Flancbaum L. Efficacy of hypocaloric total parenteral nutrition in hospitalized obese patients: a prospective, doubleblind randomized trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1994; 18:203-207.

24. Byerley LO, Heber D. Metabolic effects of triioclothy ronine replacement during fasting in obese subjects. Clin Enclocrinol Metab 1996; 81:968-976. 

25. Calapai G, Corica. F, AllegraA, Corsonello A, Sautebin L, De Gregorio T, Di Rosa M, Costantino G, Buemi M, Caputti AR Effects of intracerebroventricular leptin administration on food intake, body weight gain and diencephalic nitric oxide synthase activity in the mous J. Pharmacol. 1998; 125:798-802. 

26. Carli F, WebsterJD, Halliday D. Growth hormone modulates amino acid oxidation in the surgical patient: leucine kinetics during the fasted and fed state using moderate nitrogenous and caloric diet and recombinant human growth hormone. Metabolism 1997; 46:23-28. 

27. Cochard A, Guilhermet R, Bonneau M. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin and amino acid responses to arginine with or without aspartic acid in pigs. Effect of the dose. Reprod. Nutr Dev 1998; 38:331-343. 

28. Collier SB, WalkerWA. Parenteral protein-sparing modified fast in an obese adolescent with Prader Willi syndrome. Nutr Rev 1991; 49:235-238.29.

29. Corpas E, Blackman MR, Roberson R, Scholfield D, Harman SM. Oral arginina-lysine does not increase growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-I in old men. J Gerontol. 1993; 48: 128-13 3. 

30. Craig RR Tweedle D, Davidson HA, Johnston ID. Intravenous glucose, aminoacids, and fat in the postoperative period. A controlled evaluation of each substrate. Lancet 1977; 2:8-11. 

31. Cuerda C, Lucas T Silvestre RA, Breton 1, Garcia P, Marco J, Barcelo B. Growth hormone secretory response to intravenous galanin infusion in acromegalic patients. Exp. Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1998; 106: 68-73. 

32. Czech DA. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine, attenuates glucoprivic feeding and deprivation-induced drinking in the mouse. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998; 60:601-607. 

33. Daniel PM. The metabolic homeostatic role of muscle and its function as a store of protein. Lancet 1977; 27:446-448. 

34. DeAngelis RC, Takahashi N, Amaral LA, Terra IC. Imbalanced protein and appetite. Arq. Gastroenterol 1978; 15:194-198. 

35. De Feo P, Perriello G, Santeusanio F, Brunetti P, Bolli G, Haymond MW Differential effects of insulin induced hypoglycaemia on the plasma branched-chain and nonbranched-chain amino acid concentrations in humans. Diabetes Metab 1992; 18: 277-282.

36. De la Hoz Riesco ML, Prieto Prado M, Garcia Vielbaj, García Diez F, García Arumi E, Culebras Fernández JM. Amino acid pattern variation in animals after administration of hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition. Nutr Hosp 1996; 11: 178-184. 

37. Deecher DC, Mash DC, StaleyJK, Mufson Ej. Characterization and localization of galanin receptors in human entorhinal cortex. Regul Pept 1998; 73:149-159. 

38. Deneke SM, Fanburg BL. Regulation of cellular glutathione. Am J Physiol 1989; 2571163-173. 

39. Desai SP, Bistrian BR, Palombo JD, Moldaver LL, Blackburn GL. Branched-chain amino acid administration in surgical patients. Effects on amino acid and fuel substrate profiles. Arch Surg 1987; 122:760-764. 

40. Dobbins RL, Chester MW, Daniels MB, McGarryjD, Stein DT Circulating fatty acids are essential for efficient glucose stimulated insulin secretion after prolonged fasting in humans. Diabetes 1998; 47: 1613-1618. 

41. Dubuc GR, Phinney SD, Stern JS, Havel Pj. Changes of serum leptin and endocrine and metabolic parameters after 7 days of energy restriction in men and women. Metabolism 1998; 47:429-434. 

42. Ebbeling CB, Rodriguez NR. Effects of reduced energy intake on protein utilization in obese children. Metabolism 1998; 47: 1434-1439. 

43. Eriksson E, Ahlenius S. Suggestive evidence for inhibitory effects of galanin on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Brain Res. 1999; 822:200-209.. 

44. Eriksson S, Hagenfeldt L, Wahren J. A comparison of the effects of intravenous infusion of individual branchedchain amino acids on blood amino acids levels in man. Clin Sci. 198 1; 60: 95-100. 

45. Essen P Heys SD, Garlick P, Wernerman J. The separate and combined effect of leucine and insulin on muscle free amino acids. Clin Physiol 1994; 14: 513-525. 

46. Fathi Z, Battaglino PM, Then LG, Li H, y col. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1998; 58: 156-169. 

47. Fau D. Imbalance through lysine excess and correction by a threonine supplement, as a function of nutritional status. Am NutiAliment 1975; 29:321-335. 

48. Fernindez-Real JM, Casamitjana R, Ricart Engel W. Leptin is involved in gender related differences in insulin sensitivity. Clin. Endocrinol. 1998; 49: 505-511. 

49. Flakoll Pj, Kulaylat M, Frexes Steed M, HiIIJO, Abumrad NN. Amino acids enhance insulin resistance to exogenous glucose infusion in overnight fasted humans, ]PEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 199 1; 15: 123-127. 

50. Fogelholm GM, Naveri HK, Kiilavuori KT Harkonen MH. Low-dose amino acid supplementation: no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weighlifters. Int J Sport Nutr. 1993; 3:290-297. 

51. Frexes Steed M, Warner ML, Bulus N, Flakoll P, Abumrad NN. Role of insulin and branched chain amino acids in regulating protein metabolism during fasting. Am J Physiol 1990; 258:E907-917. 

52. Galfand RA, Hendler RG, Sherwin RS. Dietary carbohydrate and metabolism of ingested protein. Lancet 1979; 1:65-68. 

53. Garlick PJ, Grant 1. Amino acid infusion increases the sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis in vivo to insulin.Effect of branched chain amino acids. Biochem J 1988; 254:579-584. 

54. Geggel HS, Ament ME, HeckenlivelyJR, Martin DA, KoppleJD. Nutritional requirement for taurine in patients receiving long term parenterall nutrition. N Engl J Med 1985; 312:142-146. 

55. Ghigo E, Maccario M, Arvat E, Valetto MR, Valente F, Nicolosi M, Mazza E, Martina V, Cocchi D, Camanni F Interactions of galanin and arginine on growth hormone, prolactin, and insulin secretion in man. Metabolism 1992; 41:85-89. 

56. Ghigo E, Miola C, Aimaretti G, Valente F, Procopio M, Arvat E, Yin Zhang W Cammanni F Arginine abolishes the inhibitory effect of glucose on the growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in man. Metabolism 1992; 41:1000-1003. 

57. Ghigo E, Ceda GR Valcavii R, Goffi S, Zini M, Mucci M, Valenti G, Cocchi D, Muller EE, Camanni F Low doses of either intravenously or orally administered arginine are able to enhance growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in elderly subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 1994; 17: 113-117. 

58. Gofferje H, Kozlik V Blood proteins during shrt term fasting and during supply of essential amino acids. Infusionsther Klin Ernahr 1977; 4:320-324. 

59. Gonzales GF Serotonina sanguínea: Regulación y significación endocrina. Rev. Peruana Endocr. Metab (Perú). 1997;3:77-94. 

60. Gonzales GE Neuroendocrinología. Rev. Peruana Endocr. Metab (Perú). 1998; 4:5-30.

 61. Gonzales GF, Coyotupaj, Kaneku L, Guerra Garcia R. Relationship between blood serotonin and serum growth hormone in basal conditions in natives at low and high altitude. IRCS Med Sci 198 1; 9:263. 

62. Gougeon R. The metabolic response to two very low energy diets (VLED) of differing amino acid composition during weight reduction. IntJ Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16:1005-1012. 

63. Gougeon R, Hoffer LJ, Pencharz PB, Marliss EB. Protein metabolism in obese subjects during avery low energy diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56 (Suppl) 249S-254S. 

64. Gougeon R, Pencharz PB, Marliss EB. Whole body protein turnover in obese subjects during two very low energy diets of different amino acid composition. IntJ Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 10:739-748. 

65. Gougeon R, Pencharz PB, Sigal RJ. Effect of glycemic control on the kinetics of whole body protein metabolism in obese subjects with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus during iso and hypoenergetic feeding. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65:861-870. 

66. Guttler F, Kuhl C, Pedersen L, Paby P Effect of oral phenylalanine load on plasma glucagon, insulin, amino acid and glucose concentration in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1978; 38:255-260. 

67. Hagen TM, Wirzbicka GT Sillau AH, Bowman BB,Jones DR Bioavailability of dietar/glutathione: Effect on plasma concentration. Am J Physiol 1990; 259:G524-529. 

68. Heini AF, Lara-Castro C, Schneider H, Kirk KA, Considine RV Weinsier RL. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandiall satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. IntJ Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22:906-909. 

69. Heini AF, Kirk KA, Lara Castro C, Weinsier RL. Relationship between hunger satiety feelings and various metabolic parameters in women with obesity during controlled weight loss. Obes Res 1998; 6:225-230. 

70. Henning BF, Tepel M, Riezier R, Gillesen A, Doberauer C. Vitamin supplementation during weight reduction favourable effect on homocysteine metabolism. Res. Exp. Med (Berl) 1998; 198:37-42. 

71. Hoie LH, Bruusgaard D, Thom E. Reduction of body mass and change in body composition on a very low calorie diet. IntJ Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993; 17:17-20. 

72. Lapichino G, Radrizzani D, Solca M, Bonetti G, Leoni L, Ferro A. Influence of total parenteral nutrition c tein metabolism following acute injury: assessment by urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion and nitrogen balance. J PEN J Parenter. Enterall Nutr 1985; 9:42-46. 

73. Lapichino G, Colombo A, Leoni L, Marengo M, Quarenghi E, Radrizzani D, Ravagnan R, Rigoli A, Veschi G. Effects of various caloric intakes on nitrgogen metabolism of the body, the muscles and the viscera during total parenteral nutrition with aminoacidic solution enriched with branched chain amino acids. Minerva Anestesiol 1989; 55:349-353. 

74. Izydore RA, Hall IH. Hypolipidernic activity of aliphatic clicarboxylic acids in rodents. Acta Pharm Nord 199 1; 3: 141-146. 

75. Janjic D, Wollheim CB. Effect of 2-mercaptoethanol on glutathione levels, cystine uptake and insulin secretion in insulin secreting cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 1992; 210:297-304. 

76. Janjic D, Andereggen E, Deng S, Bartley C, Buhler L, Morel P, Wollheim CB. Improved insulin secretion of cryopreserved human islets by antioxiclant treatment. Pancreas 1996; 13:166-172. 

77. Jeevanandam M, Lowry SF, Brennan MF Effect of the route of nutrient administration on whole body protein kinetics in man. Metabolism 1987; 36: 968-973. 

78. Jensen GL, Rogers J. Obesity in older persons. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98:1308-1311. 

79. Kanaley JA, Haymond MW, Jensen MD. Effects of exercise and weight loss on leucine turnover in different types of obesity. Am J Physiol 1993; 264:E687-E692. 

80. Keith MO, Peace RW, Botting HG, Hamilton EJ. Utilization of amino acids administered enterally or parenterally to young pigs. J Nutr 1975; 105:1535-1543. 

81. Kerr BJ, Easter RA. Effect of feeding reduced protein, amino acid supplemented diets on nitrogen and energy balance in grower pigs. J Anim Sci 1995; 73:3000-3008. 

82. Khedara A, Goto T, KayashitaJ, Kato N. Hypercholesterolemic effect in rats of a dietary addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N omega nitroarginine, by less synthesis of bile acids. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 1998; 62: 773-777. 

83. Kinney GA, Emmerson PJ, Miller RJ. Galanin receptor mediated inhibition of glutamate release in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci 1998; 18: 3489-3500. 

84. Kirschner MA, Schneider G, Ertel NH, GorTnanJ. An eight year experience with a very low calorie formula diet for control of major obesity. IntJ Obes 1988; 12:69-80. 

85. Koop CE. Obesity: In: The Surgeon General's report on nutrition and health. Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1988:275-592. [DHHS publication (PHS) 88-502 10]. 

86. Kuhara T, Ikeda S, OhnedaA, Sasaki Y Effects of intravenous infusion of 17 amino acids on the secretion of GH, glucagon, and insulin in sheep. Am J Physiol 1991; 260121-26. 

87. Kurowska EM, Carroll KK. Hypocholesterollemic properties of nitric oxide. In vivo and in vitro studies using nitric oxide donors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1392:41-50. 

88. Lambert MI, Hefer JA, Millar RP, Macfarlane PW Failure of commercial oral amino acid supplements to increase serum growth hormone concentrations in male bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr 1993;3:298-305. 

89. Leewenburgh C, Ji LL. Glutathione depletion in rested and exercised mice: biochemical consequence and adaptation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys 1995; 316:941-949.. 

90. Leeuwenburgh C, Leichtweis S, Holanderj, Fiebig R, Gore M, Ji LL. Effect of acute exercise on glutathione deficient heart. Mol Cell Biochem 1996; 156:17-24. 

91. Lehnert H, Wurtman N. Amino acid control of neurotransmitter synthesis and release: Physiological and clinical implications. Psychother Psychosom 1993; 60:18-32. 

92. Leibowitz SF Differential functions of hypothalamic galanin cell grows in the regulation of eating and body weight. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 863:206-220. 

93. Leibowitz SF, Akabayashi A, WangJ. Obesity on a highfat diet: role of hypothalamic galanin in neurons of the anterior paraventricular nucleus projecting to the median eminence. J Neurosci 1998; 18:2709-2719. 

94. Leibowitz SF Akabayashi A, Alexander JT, Wang J. Gonadal steroids and hypothalamic galanin and neuropeptide Y. role in eating behavior and body weight control in female rats. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 1771-1780. 

95. Levowitz B. Safety of amino acids as dietary supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 5 7: 944-946.

96. Levy JR, LeGall Salmon E, Santos M, Pandak WM, Stevens W Effect of enteral versus parenteral nutrition on leptin gene expression and release into circulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997; 237:98-102. 

97. Leweling H, Knauff HG. Use of different parenterally administered amino acid solutions with healthytest subjects. Infusionsther Klin Ernahr 1979; 6:299-304. 

98. Lewelling H, Breitkreutz R, Behne F, Staedt U, Striebel JP, Holm E. Hyperammonemia-induced depletion of glutamate and branched chain amino acids in muscle and plasma. J hepatol 1996; 25: 756-762. 

99. Ling PR, Gollaher C, Colon E, Istfan N, Bistrian BR. IGFI alters energy expenditure and protein metabolism during parenteral feeding in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61:116-120. 

100. Lohlein D, Donay F, Zick R. Studies on organ related postoperative utilization of administered amino acids. Chir Forum Exp Klin Forsch 1979; 237-242. 

101. Lohlein D. Protein sparing mechanisms of parenteral feeding. 1. Principles and methods. Infusionsther Klin Emahr 1984; 11:90-99. 

102. Long CL, Nelson KM, GeigerJW, Theus WL, ClarkJA, Laws HL, Blakemore WS. Effect of amino acid infusion on glucose production in trauma patients. J Trauma 1996; 40:335-341. 

103. Mandel LJ, Schnellmann RG, Jacobs WR. Intracellular glutathione in the protection from anoxic injury in renal proximal tubules. J Clin Invest 1990; 85:3 16-324. 

104. Martensson J, Jain A, MeisterA. Glutathione is required for intestinal function. Proc. Nad Acad Sci USA 1990; 87:1715-1719. 

105. McShane TM, Wilson ME, Wise PM. Effects of lifelong moderate caloric restriction on levels of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, and galanin mRNA. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54:13 14-2 1. 

106. McLaughlin T, Abbasi F, Carantoni M, Schaaf P, Reaven G. Differences in insulin resistance do not predictweight loss in response to hypocaloric diets in healthy obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84:578-58 1. 

107. Moja EA, Antinoro E, Cesa Bianchi M, Gessa GL. Increase in stage 4 sleep after ingestion of a tryptophanfree diet in humans. Pharmacol Res Commun 1984; 16:909-914. 

108. Monda M, Viggiano A, Sullo A, De Luca V Nitric oxide reduces hypophagia induced by threonine free diet in the rat. Brain Res 1998; 808:129-133. 

109. Morgan WD, Ryde SJ, BirksJL, Thomas DW Kreitzman SN. Changes in total body nitrogen during weight reduction by very low calorie diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56 (1 Suppl) 262S-264S. 

110. Morley JE. Anorexia of aging: physiologic and pathologic. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:760-773. 

111. Molriarty KJ, HegartyJE, Fairclough PD, Kelly MJ, Clark ML, Dawson AM. Relative nutritional value of whole protein, hydrolysed protein and free amino acids in man. Gut 1985; 26: 694-699. 

112. Mujais SK Maleic acid induced proximal tubulopathy: NaX pump inhibition. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 4:142-147. 

113. Nair KS, Welle SL, Tito J. Effect of plasma amino acid replacement on glucagon and substrate responses to insulin induced hypoglycernia in,humans. Diabetes 1990; 39:376-382. 

114. Nealon WH, Upp JR Jr, Alexander RW, Gomez G, Townsend CM Jr, Thompson JC. Intravenous amino acids stimulate human gallbladder emptying and hormone release. Am J Physiol 1990; 259:G 173-178. 

115. Nissim I, Weinberg JM. Glycine attenuates Fanconi syndrome induced by maleate or ifosfamide in rats. Kidney Int 1996; 49:684-695. 

116. Ohno M, Miura J, Arai K, Tsukahara S, Ikeda Y The efficacy and metabolic effects of two different regimens of very low calorie diet. IntJ Obes 1989; 13 Suppl 2:79-85. 

117. Oi Y, Okuda T, Koishi H, Koh H, Waki M, Kurata M, Nambu S. Effect of low energy diets on protein metabolism studies with [ 15 N]glycine in obese patients. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1987; 33:227-237. 

118. Owen OE, Smalley KJ, D'Alessio DA, Mozzoli MA, Dawson EK. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68:12-34. 

119. Pan RM, Mauron C, Glaeser B, Wurtman RJ. Effect of various oral glucose doses on plasma neutral amino acid levels. Metabolism 1982; 31: 937-943. 

120. Partonen T Possible pathophysiological mechanisms regulating food intake in seasonal affective disorder. Med Hypotheses 1996; 47:215-216. 

121. Phivthong-ngam L, Bode-boger SM, Boger RH, Bohme M, Brandes RP, Mugge A, Frolich JC. Dietary L-arginine normalizes endothelin induced vascular contractions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 32: 300-307. 

122. Pieper GM, Dondlinger LA. Plasma and vascular tissue arginine are decreased in diabetes: acute arginine supplementation restores endothelium dependent relaxation by augmenting cGMP production. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 1997; 283: 684-69 1. 

123. PijI H, MeindersAE. Overweight. Ill. Therapeutic strategies for weight reduction. Ned Tijdschr Genneeskd 1998; 142:1995-1999. 

124. Poot M, Teubert H, Rabinovitch PS, Kavanagh TJ. De novo synthesis of glutathione is required for both entry into and progression through the cell cycle. J Cell Physiol 1995; 163:555-560. 

125.Poppitt SD, Swann DL, Murgatroyd PR, Elia M, McDevitt RM, Prentice AM. Effect of dietary manipulation on substrate flux and energy balance in obese women taking the appetite suppressant dexfenfluramine. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 1012-102 1. 

126. Preedy VR, Garlick PJ. Ventricular muscle and lung protein synthesis in vivo in response to fasting, refeeding, and nutrient suppply byoral and parenteral routes. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995; 19:107-113. 

127. Procopio M, Maccario M, Savio P Valetto MR, Aimaretti G, Grottoli, Oleandri SE, Baffoni C, Tassone F, Arvat E, Camanni F, Ghigo E. GH response to GHRH combined with pyridostigmine or arginine in different conditions of low somatotrope secretion in adulthood: obesity and Cushing's syndrome in comparison with hypopituitarism. Panminerva Med 1998; 40:13-17. 

128. Rada P Mark GP Hoebel BG. Galanin in the hypothalamus raises dopamine and lowers acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens: a possible mechanism for hypothalamic initiation of feeding behavior. Brain Res 1998; 798: 1-6. 

129. Roberts SB, Dallal GE. Effects of age on energy balance. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 975S-979S. 

130, Rossini AA, Aoki TT, Ganda OP SoeldnerJS, Cahill GF Jr. Alanine induced amino acids interrelationships. Metabolism 1975; 24: 1185-1192. 

131. Saito S, Kimura S.Amino acids as a modulator of hormone secretion. Nippon Rinsho 1992; 50: 1503-1508. 

132. Scacchi M, Pincelli Al, Cavagnini F Growth hormone in obesity. IntJ Obes Relat Metab Discord 1999; 23:260-27 1. 

133. Schelp AO, Burini RC. Control of supply and use of neergy substrates in the encephalon. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1995; 53:690-697. 

134. Serra F, Gianotti M, Palou A, Pons A. Dietary obesity shows adaptations of aminoacid metabolism on enzyme activities to save amino nitrogen. Biochem Int 199 1; 24:769-776. 

135. Sim AJ, Wolfe BM, Young VR, Clarke D, Moore FD. Glucose promotes whole body protein synthesis from infused aminoacids in fasting man. Isotopic demonstration. Lancet 1979; 1:68-72. 

136. Siniscalchi C, Bordoni A, Cocchi M, Grilli M, Gamberini A, Stancanelli V, Piazzi S. Effect of different intravenous nutrients on metabolic changes in short-term fasted man. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987; 13:451-456.

137. Spodaryk M, Sztefko K, Miezynski W, Krystynowicz S, Stankiewicz D, Urbanowicz: B. Incorrect caloric nitro gen composition of parenteral nutrition solution as a factor for causing liver damage-an animal model. Przegl Lek 1997; 54: 96-102. 

138. Suminski RR, Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Arslanian S, KangJ, DaSilva S, Utter AC, Metz KF Acute effect of amino acid ingestion and resistance exercise on plasma growth hormone concentration in young men. Int.J. Sport. Nutr. 1997; 7:48-60. 

139. Summerbell CD, Watts C, Higgins JP, Garrow JS. Randomised controlled trial of novel, simple, and well supervised weight reducing diets in outpatients. BMJ 1998; 317: 1487-1489. 

140. Svendsen OL, Krotkiewski M, Hassager C, Christiansen C. Effects on muscle of dieting with or without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80:1365-1370. 

141. Svensson J, Lonn L, Jansson JO, Murphy G, Wyss D, Krupa D, Cerchio K, Polvino W, Gertz B, Boseaus I, Sjostrom L, Bengtsson BA. Two month treatment of obese subjects with the oral growth hormone (GH) secretagogue MK-677 increases GH secretion, fatfree mass, and energy expenditure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:362-369. 

142. Tagliaferri M, Scacchi M, Pincelli Al, Berselli ME, Silvestri P, Montesano A, Ortolani S, Dubini A, Cavagnini F Metabolic effects of biosynthetic growth hormone treatment in severely energy restricted obese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Discord 1998; 22: 836- 841. 

143.Tappy L, J6quier E, Acheson K. Thermic effect of infused amino acids in healthy humans and in subjects with insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 912-916. 

144. Teschan PE, Beck q, Dwyer JT Greene T Klahr S, Levy AS, Mitch WE, Snetselaar LG, Steinman TI, Walser M. Effect of a ketoacid aminoacid supplemented very low protein diet on the progression of advanced renal disease: a reanalysis of the MDRD feasibility study. Clin Nephrol 1998; 50: 273-283. 

145. Teyssen S, Gonzalez Calero G, Schimiczek M, Singer MV Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric secretion. J Clin Invest 1999; 103:707-713. 

146. Thompson JL, Butterfield GE, Gy1faclottir UK, YesavageJ, Marcus R, Hintz RL, Pearman A, Hoffman AR Effects of human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and diet and exercise on body composition of obese postmeno pausal women. J.Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 1477-84. 

147. Tsan MF, White JE, Rosano CL. Modulation of enclothelial GSH concentrations: effect of exogenous GSH and GSH monoethyl ester. J. Appl. Physiol. 1989; 66:1029-1034.

 148. Valenti M, Caramello E, Bergia R, Dionisio P, Torelli C, Amino M, Berto IM, Bajardi P Nutritional evaluation of a group of patients with terminal uremia treated with an artificial diet. Minerva Urol Nefrol 1990; 42:65-67. 

149. Van Gaal LF Wauters MA, De Leeuw I H. Antiobesity drugs: what does sibutramine offer? An analysis of its potential contribution to obesity treatment. Exp. Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1998; 106 Suppl 2:35-40. 

150. Van Itallie TB. Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103: 983-8. 

151. Van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Mensik RP Westerterp KR. The effect of fat composition of the diet on energy metabolism. Z. Ernahrungswiss 1997; 36:303-305. 

152. Verspohl EJ, Kaiser P, Wahl M, Ammon HR Decreased insulin secretory response of pancreatic islets during culture in the presence of lowglucose is associated with diminished 45Ca2+ net uptake, NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSC ratios. Life Sci 1988; 43:209-19. 

153. Visarius TM, Putt DA, Schare JM, Pegouske DM, Lash LH. Pathways of glutathione metabolism and transport in isolated proximal tubular cells from rat kidney. Biochem Pharmacol 1996; 52: 259-272. 

154. Wadden TA, Frey DL. A multicenter evaluation of a proprietary weight loss program for the treatment of marked obesity: a five year follow up. Int J Eat Discord 1997; 22:203-212. 

155. Wang J, Akabayashi A ,Yu HJ, Dourmashkinj, Adexander JT Silva 1, Lighterj, Leibowitz SE Hypothalamic galanin: control by signals of fat metabolism. Brain Res 1998; 804: 7-20. 

156. Weinberg JM, Davis JA, Abarzua M, Rajan T. Cytoprotective effects of glycine and glutathione against hypoxic injury to renal tubules. J. Clin. Invest. 1987; 80: 1446-1454. 

157. Weinberg JM, Nissim I, Roeser NF, DavisJA, Schultz S, Nissim I. Relationships between intracelular amino acid levels and protection against injury to isolated proximal tubules. Am. J. Physiol. 1991; 260:F410-419. 

158. Wessels RH, Titgemeyer EC, StJean G. Effect of amino acid supplementation on whole-body protein turnover in Holstein steers. J Anim Sci 1997; 75:3066-73. 

159. Widhalm K, Zwiauer K, Haycle M, Roth E. Plasma concentrations of free amino acids during 3 weeks treatment of massively obese children with a very low calorie diet. Eur J Pediatr 1989; 149:43-47. 

160. Wirth A, Steinmetz B. Gender differences in changes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat during weight reduction: an ultrasound study. Obes Res 1998; 6: 393399.

 161. Wolfe BM, Grace DM. Substitution of mixed amino acids resembling soy protein for mixed amino acids resembling casein in the diet reduces plasma cholesterol in slowly, but not rapidly fed nor fasted baboons. Metabolism 1987; 36:223-229. 

162.Wong DT, Byrnaster FP, Engleman EA. Prozac (Fluoxetine, Lilly 110 140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and aanticlepressant drug: Twentyyears since its first publication. Life Sciences 1995; 57:411-441. 

163. Worthley LI, Philcox JC, Hartley TF Fasting and nonfasting serum amino acid values in three home parenteral nutrition patients: a comparison between Synthamin 17R and vamin N 7%R. Anaesth Intensive Care 1984; 12:46-51. 

164. Xu ZQ, Shi TJ, HokfeltT Galanin/GMAP and NPY-like immunoreactivities in locus coeruleus and noradrenergic nerve terminals in the hipocampal formation and cortex with notes on the galaninR I and-R2 receptors. J Comp Neurol 1998; 392: 227-251. 

165. Xu ZQ, Zhang X, Pieribone VA, Grillner S, Hokfelt T GaIanin-5-hydroxytryptamine interactions: electrophysiological, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies on rat dorsal raphe neurons with a note on galanin RI and R2 receptors Neuroscience. 1998; 87: 79-94. 

166. Young EA, Harris MM, Cantu TL, Ghicloni JJ, Crawley R. Hepatic response to a very-low energy diet and refeeding in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57:857-62 

167. Young VR, el Khoury AE. Can amino acid requirements for nutritional maintenance in adult humans be approximated from the amino acid composition of body mixed proteins? Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 300-304.



back.gif (71 bytes) Contenido

Volumenes anteriores

Revistas de Salud